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Medical Dermatology Conditions

Fungal Infections

What are Fungal Infections?

A fungus is a primordial organism that exists in the air, soil, plants, and water. A few live in the human body, and only around half of all types are harmful. Some fungi reproduce over microscopic spores in the air.

These spores can settle on you, or you can also inhale them. As an outcome, fungal diseases generally kickoff in the lungs or on the skin. If your immune system is weakened or you take antibiotics, you are more inclined to get a fungal infection.

In an individual, fungal diseases develop when an invading fungus covers an area of the body and is excessive for the immune system to control. There are useful and damaging fungi, like many microbes. When destructive fungi penetrate the body, they can be challenging to wipe-out because they can endure the habitat and re-infect an individual trying to get well.

Causes and Occurrence

A considerable amount of fungi that occur in our everyday habitat cause fungal infections. Most of us can be unprotected from fungi frequently without a detrimental reaction, but some circumstances can induce fungi to overgrow and lead to symptoms.

A harmful fungus doesn’t choose between a healthy or sick individual so anybody can get a fungal infection. It’s complicated for persons with a weak immune system to fight off the infection. Some of the most remarkable elements of a weak immune system are organ transplants, cancer, medication, and stem cell therapy.

The environmental aspect is also one of the factors in being infected because fungi flourish in warm and humid surroundings. Examples are locker rooms, showers, and gyms. Communal swimming pools are familiar places to contract a fungal foot infection. Reduced blood flow is also one factor that can make some people are more susceptible to infections. If blood doesn’t circulate freely throughout your body, it an make it difficult for specific organs to combat a disease. When there is incomplete blood circulation on the skin, it facilitates the fungi to penetrate its defenses and alter the deeper layers of the tissue.

Stages of Infection

All phases of fungal infections are intrusive. Zygomycetes regularly dwell in the surroundings are seized up by inhalation into the nasal sinuses. Sometimes, they penetrate the mucosal layer, although, on most occasions, this encounter does not cause inconvenience.

Considering the symptoms are not yet apparent, the initial phase of invasive fungal infection is usually neglected. Nonetheless, individuals displaying diabetes or hematologic malignancies are prone because the initial step of a local disease may be pursued by circulation towards different internal organs, and even within bone structures, then the diagnosis is kind of unsatisfactory.

Symptoms and Manifestations

  • Fungal infection of the skin can produce flaking, redness, itching, and inflammation.
  • Fungal infection in the lungs may induce fever, coughing, muscle soreness, and chest pain.
  • A vaginal yeast disease sometimes produces itching and a foul release from the vagina.

Most Common Types of Fungal Skin Infections

There are two popular forms of fungal skin infection. First is the tinea infections, also known as ringworm, which forms on your limbs, trunk, or scalp. Tinea is commonly known as athlete’s foot and manifests as foot infections, or jock itch in the groin area.

Candida infections in the mouth, vagina, or nappy area in babies are called thrush. It can also occur under breasts, armpits, or in the groin region.

1. Athlete’s Foot

Also known as tinea pedis, this condition is a fungal infection that affects the foot1. It frequently affects sports competitors because the fungus breeds fully in warm, damp surroundings such as socks and shoes, locker rooms, and sports equipment. It transmits through wet floors, shared towels, and footwear.

Athlete’s foot may produce an unpleasant smell, induce itching, burning, or stinging. It can reproduce to the nails causing the nail to change color and become chunky.

2. Jock itch

This fungal skin infection appears in the area of your groin and thighs. It occurs predominantly in men and teenage boys2. It is an itchy red rash that frequently starts in the groin area or around the inner thighs.

After exercising or indulging in other physical activities, the rashes may get worse and can advance to the buttocks and abdomen.

3. Tinea Versicolor

This is also known as Pityriasis Versicolor. It is a type of fungal/yeast infection that causes small-scale oval discolored patches to evolve on the skin3. This condition happens when there is an overgrowth of the fungus termed Malassezia (typically found in the skin of around 90% of adults). It occurs mostly during summer or in localities with a sunny, wet temperature.

  1.  Stone, S. R. E. J. W. (2014, November 15). Diagnosis and Management of Tinea Infections. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1115/p702.html
  2.  Tinea Cruris. (2020, February 15). Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32119489/
  3.  Tinea (Pityriasis) Versicolor. (2020, February 3). Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29494106/

4. Cutaneious Candidiasis

This condition is caused by the candida fungi – a type of fungi commonly present in our bodies. An infection develops when the candida fungi overflow.

Candida skin infections typically develop in areas of the body that are warm and insufficiently ventilated, such as under the breasts or in the folds of the buttocks. Manifestations of this infection on the skin include itching, small red pustules, and a red rash. When developing on the buttocks they can be mistaken for diaper rash.

5. Onychomycosis (Tinea Unguium)

When your nails are discolored (yellow, brown, or white), crack easily, or swell up and thicken, you may have onychomycosis—a fungal infection which can alter the toenails or the fingernails. To deal with this infection, prescription medication is usually recommended. A doctor may extract some or all the damaged nail.

6. Ringworm of the Body

The primary manifestation of ringworm is a ring-shaped rash with marginally heightened edges; it can escalate and is usually itchy. The skin on the center of these circular rashes looks normal.

Ringworm is produced by a fungus and not a worm, contrary to its name. It frequently appears on the torso and limbs and is highly infectious. It’s typically not severe and can be treated with an antifungal cream.

7. Ringworm of the Scalp (Tinea Capitis)

This type of ringworm affects the skin of the scalp and hair shafts. Young children are frequently affected and need to be treated with oral medication and antifungal shampoo. Manifestations include areas with bald patches that may become scaly or red, combined scaling and itching, and a mix of tenderness or pain in the affected patches.

Common Treatments

Treatments of fungal infection include:

  • Simple cleanliness measures such as daily washing of floors where you walk barefoot. Use bleach and meticulouslyclean the bathroom. Hot wash towels, socks, and bathmats at temperatures of at least 60 degrees Celsius. Manage the afflicted skin by keeping it fresh and dry. Take a bath daily. Use your towel and make sure that areas between your toes are always dry.
  • Reduce infection by avoiding walking barefoot in areas others may have stepped on. Use an antifungal foot powder that consists of ciclopirox, miconazole, econazole, tolnaftate, or undecylenic acid. Do not share personal clothing, sheets, or towels.
  • Medical treatments include topical antifungal medication and oral antifungal medication.

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